TL;DR: Heroku is still hands down my preferred choice for hosting & deployment in 2020. Digital Ocean has super clear pricing & AWS Elastic Beanstalk is pretty cost effective.
Hosting & deploying a modern Ruby on Rails application is an adventure! The options available are constantly evolving & a lot of it feels like magic.
I decided to experiment with a few the popular approaches this week & see what current state of Ruby on Rails deployment is in 2020.
I setup a simple Rails app which had the following fairly common requirements:
- Assets imported via Yarn
- Background jobs being performed via Sidekiq
- Database migrations to be run as part of a deployment
- Easily scaleable
- Deployment can be automated after a test suite passes
- Databases, Redis & file uploads are managed on an external service like AWS RDS & S3.
For automated deployments I'd use what integrations they offered, if they didn't offer an easy integration I setup a script via a Github Action to perform the deployment.
Platform as a Service has been my preferred hosting choice for most of my professional career. They handle the patching of the server software, so I just have to provide my apps code & they do the rest, it's awesome.
I've used Heroku as my go to solution for the last few years. For a while it had a reputation as being quite expensive, but now that they have a tier which starts as $7 a month they are very affordable.
Setting up my app was just a matter of connecting my account to the GitHub Repository & clicking "Deploy". Automating deploys was pretty painless as I just had a to check a box in their very clear web UI.
One of the killer features is that they'll give you pretty good insights to your applications metrics, which has been super helpful to help monitor for memory usage & figuring when I should scale up my dyno count.
I liked that the pricing is fairly obvious. I could easily see how much I was spending & scale as required. The only drawback I've found is that autoscaling is only available for the higher end tiers.
AWS Elastic Beanstalk
I really want to rip into Beanstalk for being the classic AWS "Here is a product...good luck". But annoyingly it's one of the best products for getting a Ruby on Rails app online within the AWS ecosystem.
Beanstalk is pretty cheap & you have a lot of options for what kind of servers you'd like, which is nice. You can also setup autoscaling without to much kerfuffle via their Web UI, though if you're unfamiliar with AWS it might feel a little intimidating at first.
To be able to run both Rails & Sidekiq comfortably within my Beanstalk setup, I used their "Multicontainer Docker environments". I pretty much just setup a
Dockerrun.aws.json (which feels a lot like
docker-compose.yml), then was good to go.
Setting up a simple CI system was pretty fun. Historically I was able to deploy via my local terminal, but I found a nice GitHub Action which made pushing changes to production easy.
Figuring out the pricing of Beanstalk is a little tricky, like all AWS products they don't show you an estimate of costs at the point of sale. This was a little disappointing.
I wasn't able to figure out a decent solution for increasing the amount of sidekiq workers while keeping the amount of puma instances the same, this felt like a bit of a drawback, but I'm sure I just needed to research a little more.
I need to do a full write-up about getting online with AWS Elastic Beanstalk, I think it's a great tool but it takes a bit of googling to get your initial setup feeling correct.
Google App Engine
They had a fairly clear guide to get going from my local terminal, which looked fairly easily to translate to a GitHub Action if I wanted to deploy in an automated fashion.
Out of the box the pricing was a little unclear (I had to use the Google Cloud Platform Pricing Calculator to figure out the monthly cost). But once I started running some numbers it felt like it could very easily become quite expensive if I wasn't actively monitoring my application.
One disappointing drawback was managing Environment Variables. If I wanted to store any API keys, I had to commit them to version control or inject them while deploying. I only scratched the surface, so there might be a better solution out there, but I couldn't find it.
Azure App Service
I was quite impressed by Azure, it had a UI which made getting setting fairly easy. Out of the box it didn't support Ruby, but if you're using Docker this isn't an issue. I also found a Github Actions template for deploying which was nice.
Running migrations around the deploy process wasn't the most obvious thing to setup. When searching for the best way to solve this issue, I kept finding results for the "App Service Migration Assistant" which made finding information about database migrations somewhat tricky.
Every time I've historically used Kubernetes on my local machine, I found it would drain my battery super fast, so I've always been a little put off by it. However, I'm seeing it appear in job descriptions so I thought I should give it a try.
Most cloud providers (AWS, Azure, Google & Digital Ocean) each provide a Kubernetes product. I ended up doing most of my experimenting with Digital Ocean as they had the most clear pricing.
I found the initial learning curve of Kubernetes quite steep. Luckily I found Kompose which is a tool that makes moving from docker-compose to Kubernetes a little easier. I also found a nice sample setup with a GitHub Action for deploying to Digital Ocean, which made deploying more approachable.
Overall Kubernetes is a nice solution for apps that require lots of services to operate correctly, or for when an app has outgrown the offerings of PaaS products. It can be quite fiddly to get started with, so I'd suggest using Convox or Cloud 66 Maestro to reduce the initial learning curve.
Convox is a really nice concept. You connect your AWS, Digital Ocean, Google Cloud or Azure account & they'll manage a Kubernetes stack for you. Then you connect your GitHub Repository and they'll handle deployments, all configured via a simple
It didn't take me to long to get an app up and running on AWS, which was nice, however deploying the same app to Digital Ocean didn't quite work as smoothly. I think the product is quite early in it's life, so it's hard to be sure if it was me or them who caused the issue.
If you're using AWS & want an easier path to Kubernetes, Convox could be worth looking at.
Cloud 66 Maestro
Cloud 66 also offers a nice wrapper for getting going with Kubernetes (Which feels kind of the same to Convox).
I was able to setup a simple
manifest.yml file where I configure what I wanted & they'll did the rest.
Pricing wise Maestro scales with the amount of servers you're running per a month (Kubernetes normally requires at least 3), which felt like it could become very expensive as you scale.
Managed servers are tricky, it's very difficult to assess what they'll do in terms of keeping your server up to date.
I'm very sceptical of these types of services. I picked up a project a few years ago where the client paid a lot of money for a company to maintain their servers, however other then setting up the server the company did very little.
Dokku is kind of like Heroku, but if you wanted to run your app on a single server. It's pretty nice over using Capistrano on a single server as it handles a good amount of the extra configuration for you.
I liked how simple the GitHub Action for Dokku Deploying looked, you're pretty much just pushing your code via git to your server & letting it do the rest.
It's a little unclear how Dokku will scale once you reach the limitation of your server (Other then increasing your single servers resources), but it does seem quite suitable for solo side projects.
Capistrano + Virtual Private Server
I've had a few side projects that I had running on AWS Lightsail which I deployed with Capistrano in the past. It's super nice to run when you only want to run a Rails app for less than $5 a month. There are even GitHub Actions to automate deployments.
I don't use Capistrano to often any more as it requires setting up & maintaining of servers. I really discourage developers from burdening themselves with server administration, as it's a large time sink which can be avoided by using a platform which removes this need.
Heroku still remains my favourite service for Ruby on Rails, though I was also fairly impressed with AWS Elastic Beanstalk. If I was required to maintain a server I'd consider going down the Kubernetes on Digital Ocean route.